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Believed to be founded by king Hindu Singh of the erstwhile state of Sachendi, Kanpur was originally known as 'Kanhpur'. Upto the 1st half of the 18th century Kanpur continued to survive as an insignificant village. In May 1765, Shuja-ud-daula, the Nawab Wazir of Awadh, was defeated by the British near Jajmau. It was probably at this time that strategic importance of the site of Kanpur was realized by the British. European businessmen had by this time gradually started establishing themselves in Kanpur. Kanpur came under the British Rule by the treaty of 1801 with Nawab Saadat Ali Khan of Awadh. This forms a turning point in the history of Kanpur. Soon Kanpur became one of the most important military stations of British India. It was declared a district on 24th March 1803. Later, Kanpur became the epicentre of the outbreak of 1857, as some of the leading luminaries of the War of Independence hailed from this place, namely – Nana Sahib, Tatiya Tope, Azimoolah Khan and Brigadier Jwala Prasad. The three strategic events of the 1857 war at Kanpur were the fight at `wheeler’s entrenchment’, the `massacre at Sati Chaura Ghat’ and the `Bibighar massacre’. Nana Sahib had declared independence on the 7th of June 1857 at Kanpur.The British under Commander Hugh Wheeler retreated into a shallow earth entrenchment in the cantonment area, later known in history as `wheeler’s entrenchment’. The English garrison surrendered in the last week of June 1857 on terms of safe passage to Allahabad. But when on the morning of 27th June, the soldiers along with the women and children were about to embark into the boats at Sati Chaura Ghat, fighting broke out and most of the men were killed. The survivors, women and children were rescued and imprisoned in Savada Kothi and later shifted to Bibighar in the `cantonment magistrates’ compound. But when it became clear that the relieving forces under General Havelock were nearing the city and the defeat was inevitable, the captives-all women and children were massacred and their dismembered bodies were buried in the well of the compound on 15th July 1857. The Bibighar was dismantled by the British and reoccupation of Kanpur and a `memorial railing and a cross’ raised at the site of the well. Only the remains of a circular ridge survive, which can be still seen at the Nana Rao Park. The Kanpur Memorial Church – `The all soul cathedral’ was raised in honor of the fallen at the north-east corner of Wheeler’s entrenchment in 1862 by the British. The marble gothic screen with famous `mournful seraph’ was transferred to the churchyard of All Souls church after independence in 1947, and in its place a bust of Tantiya Tope installed as Nana Rao Park.After 1857, the development of Kanpur was even more phenomenal. Government Harness and Saddler Factory was started for supplying leather material for army in 1860, followed by Cooper Allen & Co. in 1880. The first cotton textile mill, the Elgin Mills were started in 1862 and Moiré Mills in 1882. The propagation and popularization of Hindi also owes much to this city, with great Hindu literatures like Acharya Mahavir Parasad Dwivedi, Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi, Pratap Narain Mishra, Acharya Gaya Prasad Shukla `Sanehi’ and Balkrishna Sharma `Navin’ having hailed from here.


Mythological History

Valmiki Ashram
Some of the most significant moments of Hindu religion and mythology are said to be created here, as being the place of the forest-rendezvous of Sita after Lord Rama left her, the birthplace of Lav and Kush, the site where the Ramayana was written.

Brahmavart Ghat

This is the holiest of the holy ghats of Bithoor, where the disciples of Lord Brahma pray at the altar of the 'Wooden Slippers' after a ritual bath.

Patthar Ghat

The redstone ghat whose foundation stone was laid by the minister of Avadh, Tikait Rai, is a symbol of incomparable art and architecture. There is a massive Shiv temple where the Shivling is made of 'Kasaauti' stone.

Dhruva Teela
This is the fabled spot where the child Dhruv meditated single-mindedly on one leg. God was so pleased that he not only appeared but granted him a divine boon—to shine for all time to come as a star.

Apart from these, there are some other landmarks as well, such as the Ram Janki temple, Lav-Kush temple, Sai Baba temple, Haridham Ashram, Jahangir Mosque and Nana Saheb Smarak.




A memorial erected (circa 1860) by the British after the Mutiny at the Bibi Ghar Well. After India's Independence the statue was moved to the Memorial Church, Cawnpore. Albumen silver print by Samuel Bourne, 1860.In June, sepoys under General Wheeler in Cawnpore (Kanpur) rebelled and besieged the European entrenchment. Wheeler was not only a veteran and respected soldier, but also married to a high-caste Indian lady. He had relied on his own prestige, and his cordial relations with the Nana Sahib to thwart rebellion, and took comparatively few measures to prepare fortifications and lay in supplies and ammunition.The besieged endured three weeks of the Siege of Cawnpore with little water or food, suffering continuous casualties to men, women and children. On 25 June Nana Sahib made an offer of safe passage to Allahabad. With barely three days' food rations remaining, the British agreed provided they could keep their small arms and that the evacuation should take place in daylight on the morning of the 27th (the Nana Sahib wanted the evacuation to take place on the night of the 26th). Early in the morning of 27 June, the European party left their entrenchment and made their way to the river where boats provided by the Nana Sahib were waiting to take them to Allahabad.[86] Several sepoys who had stayed loyal to the Company were removed by the mutineers and killed, either because of their loyalty or because "they had become Christian." A few injured British officers trailing the column were also apparently hacked to death by angry sepoys. After the European party had largely arrived at the dock, which was surrounded by sepoys positioned on both banks of the Ganges,[87] with clear lines of fire, firing broke out and the boats were abandoned by their crew, and caught or were set[88] on fire using pieces of red hot charcoal.[89] The British party tried to push the boats off but all except three remained stuck. One boat with over a dozen wounded men initially escaped, but later grounded, was caught by mutineers and pushed back down the river towards the carnage at Cawnpore. Towards the end rebel cavalry rode into the water to finish off any survivors.[89] After the firing ceased the survivors were rounded up and the men shot.[89] By the time the massacre was over, most of the male members of the party were dead while the surviving women and children were removed and held hostage to be later killed in The Bibigarh massacre.[90] Only four men eventually escaped alive from Cawnpore on one of the boats: two private soldiers, a lieutenant, and Captain Mowbray Thomson, who wrote a first-hand account of his experiences entitled The Story of Cawnpore (London, 1859).Whether the firing was planned or accidental remains unresolved. Most early histories assume it was planned either by the Nana Sahib[citation needed] or that Tatya Tope and Brigadier Jwala Pershad planned it without the Nana Sahib's knowledge .[citation needed] The stated reasons for the planned nature are: the speed with which the Nana Sahib agreed to the British conditions ;[citation needed] and the firepower arranged around the ghat which was far in excess of what was necessary to guard the European troops .[citation needed] During his trial, Tatya Tope denied the existence of any such plan and described the incident in the following terms: the Europeans had already boarded the boats and Tatya Tope raised his right hand to signal their departure. That very moment someone from the crowd blew a loud bugle which created disorder and in the ongoing bewilderment, the boatmen jumped off the boats. The rebels started shooting indiscriminately. Nana Sahib, who was staying in Savada Kothi (Bungalow) nearby, was informed about what was happening and immediately came to stop it.Some British histories allow that it might well have been the result of accident or error; someone accidentally or maliciously fired a shot, the panic-stricken British opened fire, and it became impossible to stop the massacre. The surviving women and children were taken to the Nana Sahib and then confined first to the Savada Kothi and then to the home of the local magistrate's clerk (The Bibigarh) where they were joined by refugees from Fatehgarh. Overall five men and two hundred and six women and children were confined in The Bibigarh for about two weeks. In one week 25 were brought out dead, due to dysentery and cholera.[88] Meanwhile a Company relief force that had advanced from Allahabad defeated the Indians and by 15 July it was clear that the Nana Sahib would not be able to hold Cawnpore and a decision was made by the Nana Sahib and other leading rebels that the hostages must be killed. After the sepoys refused to carry out this order, two Muslim butchers, two Hindu peasants and one of Nana's bodyguards went into The Bibigarh. Armed with knives and hatchets they murdered the women and children. After the massacre the walls were covered in bloody hand prints, and the floor littered with fragments of human limbs.[95] The dead and the dying were thrown down a nearby well, when the well was full, the 50-foot (15 m) deep well was filled with remains to within 6 feet (1.8 m) of the top,[96] the remainder were thrown into the Ganges.[97]  Historians have given many reasons for this act of cruelty. With Company forces approaching Cawnpore and some believing that they would not advance if there were no hostages to save, their murders were ordered. Or perhaps it was to ensure that no information was leaked after the fall of Cawnpore. Other historians have suggested that the killings were an attempt to undermine Nana Sahib's relationship with the British.[98] Perhaps it was due to fear, the fear of being recognised by some of the prisoners for having taken part in the earlier firings.

Old name of Kanpur was “Kanhpur” which was a small village at the bank of Holy Ganga. The foundation of Kanpur city was laid by Hindu Singh, a k ing of Sachendi State. Jajmau is the oldest place of Kanpur District having pre-historical imminence. According to public views, Jajmau was calledas a ‘Yayatimau’, in the name of Pauranik King Yayati which later on became famous as Jajmau. Bithoor another historical and r eligious placeis in Kanpur. Bithoor developed and prospered ni the regime of Peshwa Bajirao and his adopted son Nana Saheb Dhodopant. Nana Saheb was awarded thehonorary of ‘Peshwa’ after the victory over British Government.

The Queen of Jhansi also lived at Bithoorduring childhood period. Nana Saheb, Tatyatope, Azimullah Khan, Bride Jwala Prasad etc. various freedom fighterhad seen the dream for India freedom on this spot.

Kanpur district (Kanpur Nagar District) is one of the very important districts of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is a part of KanpurivisionD and its district headquarters is in Kanpur city. Due to very high population it was divided in two districts namely Kanpur Nagar and K anpur Dehat in the year 1977 to ensure smooth and proper administration. It waseunitedr again in the year 1979 but
later on again separated in the year 1981. Kanpur had been Industrial Empire of JK Group. This group had a n umber of large industrial units in the town. This group has constructed very famous Radha Krishna Temple in Kanpur which is also known as JK Temple.

Kanpur is one of the major Industrial towns in the country. It was very famous in the world for manufacturing of clothesand known as Manchester of Asia.After some time, most of the clothes manufacturing units were closed.

Currently Kanpur is very famous for Leather Industry in the worldIt . is very crowded city and f acing the problems of population influx from neighbouring towns & villages. Apart from fame for industry, Kanpur is also very famous for presence of world level institutions in the city viz; IIT, HBTI, CSA Universityof Agriculture, National Sugar Institute, GSVM Medical College, Indian Institute of Pulses Research etc.

The city's coordinates are 26.4670° North and 80.3500° East. The Government of Uttar Pradesh has carved out the new district of Kanpur Dehat from the old Kanpur Rural district. Kanpur, along with Allahabad and Fatehpur, are part of the Lower Doab, which in antiquity was known as the Vatsa country. It is surrounded by two main rivers of India, the Ganges in the northeast and the Pandu River (Yamuna) in the south. The districts surrounding Kanpur are Hamirpur in the south and Unnao in the north-east. The arid region of Bundelkhand lies just south of Kanpur. Kanpur district along with Kanpur Dehat district lie between the fertile Doab region of the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. The river Yamuna marks the boundary between the Avadh and Bundelkhand regions. Kanpur City comes under the Indo-Gangetic plains of India. There are facilities of clean drinking water. Water comes from Kanpur City by Ganges Barge and there are various pumping stations for providing water to Farmers for crops. Kanpur is situated on the right side of river Ganges and left side is Shuklaganj which is in Unnao District but is also the part of Kanpur.
Kanpur features an atypical version of a humid subtropical climate that resembles the climate of Delhi to some degree. Unlike many other cities with a humid subtropical climate, Kanpur features long and very hot summers, mild and relatively short winters, dust storms and a monsoon season. Kanpur lies in northern plains of India, which witness extremes of temperature. It can drop to a minimum of 0.0 °C in the winters while it goes up to 48 °C in summers. Kanpur experiences severe fog in December and January, resulting in massive traffic and travel delays. In summer excessive dry heat is accompanied by dust storms and Loo, traits more commonly seen in desert climates. Rains appear between July and September almost at the end of regular monsoon season. Some rainfall is recorded during the harvest season of March–April. These extremes however, give the region an advantage of having three crops of versatile range of products. Best time to visit Kanpur is either October–November or February–March.Snowfall has never occurred in the city. There are some times Hailstones accompanied with rain in the winter season during the month of January but sometimes Hailstorms have also occurred in the months of March and April. In January 2002,the city witnessed a heavy hailstorm which left the city streets white with ice pieces and recently in 2009 when the last hailstorm was recorded. Dust storms are frequent during the months of April–June.These dust storms are sometimes accompanied with light drizzles. Such dusty winds raise the level of particulates in the atmosphere resulting in severe air pollution and increasing health hazards. Sometimes the speed of winds exceeds to more than 100 km/hr in the outer areas of the city. Kanpur City lies on the right bank of the river Ganges, which is elevated very high from the river, which is the reason that the city never floods. Some of the rural outskirts of the city lie on the flood prone areas of the Ganges, and it often floods the villages on its banks during the monsoon season. The Left bank sandy areas on the banks of the Ganges are cultivated to produce summer fruits like Watermelon. The dry and Hot Loo winds help the growth of watermelon which results in its great yield. The average rainfall recorded in the city is 885 mm.


Contact No:-
UP Government Tourist Office: 16/99 Gandhi Bahawan K.E.M Hall Phool Bagh Kanpur-208001

Bhitargaon Temple

The Bhitargaon Temple is a terraced brick building fronted with a terracotta panel. Built in the 6th century during the Gupta Empire, it is the oldest remaining terracotta Hindu shrine with a roof and a high Sikhara, though its upper chamber did sustain some damage in the 18th century.

The temple is built on a square plan with double-recessed corners and faces east. There tall pyramidal spire over the garbhagriha. The walls are decorated with terracotta panels depicting aquatic monsters, Shiva and Vishnu etc. When Cunningham first visited the site, the remains of the porch and of the ardhamandapa were still visible, which later collapsed.

File:Bhitargaon details2.jpg File:Bhitargaon front.jpg


Jain Glass Temple

It is situated in Maheshwari Mohal behind the Kamla Tower. It is a beautiful temple highly decorated with glass and enamel works. 

Shri Radhakrishna Temple 

This beautifully constructed temple is a unique blend of ancient and modern architecture. The even-level roofs of the mandaps have been provided with adequate ventilation for sufficient light and air. Among the five shrines in the temple, the central one is dedicated to Shri Radhakrishna and the others have idols of Shri Laxminarayan, Shri Ardhanarishwar, Shri Narmadeshwar and Shri Hanuman. 

Phool Bagh (Ganesh Udyan)

It is a beautiful park in the heart of the city on the Mall Road. In the centre of the park there is a Ganesh Shanker Vidyarthi Memorial generally used for public meetings. The annual flower shows are held here. It has a Summer House and a large Public library.


Kanpur Memorial Church

Kanpur Memorial Church, popularly known as All Soul's Cathedral is an impressive architectural edifice that was constructed in 1875 to commemorate the courage and valor of the British troops who surrendered their lives in the tumultuous Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh. Walter Granville, an erstwhile architect of East Bengal Railway, was responsible for the exquisite Lombardy Gothic architecture of the church. The building is made up of vibrant red bricks adorned in multi-colored hues. The interior of the church houses the heartbreaking memorial tables, epitaphs and monuments that pay a tribute to those soldiers who sacrificed their lives for their country. They also narrate the shattered hopes and dreams of the young whose life ended even before it had properly taken off. The Kanpur Memorial Church recounts the unfortunate massacre of the Kanpur Barracks and the betrayal of patriotic Nana Sahib, nicknamed " The Butcher of Cawnpore". A separate enclosure in the eastern extremity of the church contains the memorial garden and separated from the main building by an exquisitely carved and striking in appearance Gothic screen. At the center of the church stands a beautiful figurine of an angel, designed by the eminent Baron Carlo Marochetti. Post - independence statue and the screen have been relocated here from Kanpur's famous Municipal Gardens near the Bibighar well. Some of the ancient graves are intriguing with interesting inscriptions. A visit to the beautiful Kanpur Memorial Church brings visitors face-to-face with the morbid truth of India's struggle fore independence, a battle that caused enormous bloodshed on both sides.


Nana Rao Park

Formerly known as Memorial Well Garden, it is the biggest park in Kanpur and is situated in the heart of the city on the Mall Road. After Independence, it has been renamed after Nana Rao Peshwa, the hero of the first War of independence in 1857. It is very beautifully laid out and has a plant nursery.

Green Park

This is the best and most famous playground of Kanpur. International Cricket matches are held here and it has one of the best pitches in the world.

Allen Forest Zoo

The Kanpur Zoo was opened in 1971 and ranks among one of the best zoos in the country. It is an ideal place for picnics in picturesque surroundings

Jagannath Mandir behta

This centuries old temple belonging to Lord Jagannath is located in village Behta in the municipal region of Ghatampur under district Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh.It it's not just a day or two in advance, this temple predicts the onset of monsoon a good fortnight in advance. And there is a unique way of predicting it. The roof of the temple starts dripping 15 days before the start of the rainy season and it is the trickle that reveals of the type of showers that should be expected. A thin volume of the trickle indicates scanty rainfall, while a good volume indicates heavy showers.No wonder the temple attracts a beeline of followers as it acts as a 'meteorological office' or should we say 'the meteorological temple' at least as far as the rains are concerned. 




Old architecture being ruined at Bithur(U.P),the place where sita was exiled and where Love & Kush the sons of Lord Rama were born.


Ruining Temple.jpg


Places to See in Kanpur

The city of Kanpur attracts tourists for its age old monuments and varied other constructions, which reflect the history of the place. Besides that, this city of Uttar Pradesh houses many parks, gardens, water bodies and religious places of visit.

Amusement Parks in Kanpur

This industrial city has even got some amusement parks. If you are planning a day out with your family or friends, then you can visit any of the following places mentioned below:

  • Ekta Park near the Pandu river

  • Jungle Water Park on Bithoor Road

  • Sports Village on Bithoor Road

 Ghats in Kanpur

Being nestled in between the two major rivers of India, the Ganga and the Yamuna, the city has got innumerable ghats (a series of stairs leading to a water body). Kanpur has even got varied beautiful water bodies. Names of some of those ghats and other water bodies, which you need not miss while on your travel to Kanpur are provided below:

Massacre Ghat

Massacre Ghat lies in the Kanpur Cantonment Area, on the right bank of the Ganges of Uttar Pradesh. This Ghat has become historically important since the Indian Sepoy Mutiny of 1857. On June 27, 1857, Kanpur saw one of the grimmest stories of Indian history of independence. Around 300 British men, women and children were slaughtered at the Sati Chaura Ghat, Kanpur, later gaining identification as Massacre Ghat. Those who escaped the brutal fate that day were later killed at the 'Bibighur Massacre'. The rebellion was believed to be led by Nana Sahib of Peshwa from which the Ghat was renamed as Nana Rao Ghat. The Ghat now stands alone evoking the sad story. What was massacre to the Britons, the then colonial masters, was the War of Independence for the colonized Indians. Today the Massacre Ghat bears a tranquil scene marked by a small white temple. The Ganges here has turned unclean and efforts are in process to help regain Ganga its sanctity.

Moti Jheel

Moti Jheel lies is situated in the very heart of Kanpur City, Uttar Pradesh. True to its name, it is like a pearl in the heart of Kanpur. Basically a drinking water reservoir of Kanpur Waterworks, it is situated in the Benajhabar area of the city. The Moti Jheel Park is nearly inseparable from the reservoir itself. The whole of the complex has been very beautifully decorated to serve as recreation ground for the old and new alike.Conveniently located near the Kanpur Medical College in Ashok Nagar, Moti Jheel lies adjacent to the Japani Garden and the Tulsi Upavan. All these places together attract tourists and local people for their landscaped gardens and the fresh open air.
The recently renovated Moti Jheel and Park now have wonderful children's parks for which the place is gaining popularity as a Picnic Spot. Each evening the place is flocked by children in all their fun and frolic. Moti Jheel with its smooth breeze is adored by the morning and the evening strollers as well.


Sarsaiyya Ghat
This is one of the holy ghats located on the banks of the Ganga, the sacred river in India.


Siddhant Ghat
This is a ghat located in the historical site of Jajmau.


Important & Famous People from Kanpur

Nana Sahib (born 19 May 1824 – disappeared 1857), born as Dhondu Pant was an Indian, Maratha aristocrat, who led the Kanpur rebellion during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. As the adopted son of the exiled Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao II, he was entitled to a pension from the English East India Company. The Company's refusal to continue the pension after his father's death, as well as its generally arrogant policies, compelled him to revolt and seek freedom from company rule in India.

Lakshmi Sahgal (b. 1914), ex-officer of the Indian National Army, Minister of Women’s affairs in the Azad Hind Government, and Padma Vibhushan recipient. Padma Bhushan recipient. Sahgal married Prem Kumar Sahgal in March 1947 in Lahore. After their marriage, they settled in Kanpur, where she continued with her medical practice and aided the refugees who were arriving in large numbers following the Partition of India. They had two daughters: Subhashini Ali and Anisa Puri.The Sahgals' daughter, Subhashini, is a prominent Communist politician and labor activist. According to Ali, Sahgal was an atheist. The filmmaker Shaad Ali is her grandson.[7]
Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi (26 October 1890 – 25 March 1931, Kanpur), was an Indian journalist, a leader of the Indian National Congress and an independence movement activist. He is mostly known as the founder-editor of the Hindi language newspaper, Pratap.
Harish-Chandra (1923–1983), mathematician, fellow of Royal Society, who worked in the field of Representation Theory.Harish-Chandra was born in Kanpur (then Cawnpore), British India. He was educated at B.N.S.D. College, Kanpur, and at the University of Allahabad. After receiving his masters degree in Physics in 1943, he moved to the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore for further studies in theoretical physics and worked with Homi J. Bhabha.

Bob Woolmer, born in Kanpur, went on to play cricket for England and coached South Africa and Pakistan.Woolmer was born in the hospital across the road from the cricket ground in Kanpur, India on 14 May 1948. His father was the cricketer Clarence Woolmer, who represented United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh) in the Ranji Trophy. At the age of 10, Woolmer witnessed Hanif Mohammad scoring 499, and thereby setting a world record for the highest score in first-class cricket. Some 35 years later, Woolmer, as coach of Warwickshire County Cricket Club, would be watching when the county's batsman Brian Lara passed that mark, setting a new record of 501 not out.

Field Marshal Lord Roberts (1832–1914), the famous British Army commander, was born in the city into an Anglo-Irish family.Born at Cawnpore, India, on 30 September 1832, Roberts was the son of General Sir Abraham Roberts, a native of County Waterford in the south-east of Ireland. At the time Sir Abraham was commanding the 1st Bengal European Regiment. Roberts was named Sleigh in honour of the garrison commander, Major-General William Sleigh. His mother was Edinburgh-born Isabella Bunbury, daughter of Major Abraham Bunbury from Kilfeacle in County Tipperary.
Roberts was educated at Eton, Sandhurst, and Addiscombe Military Seminary before entering the East India Company Army as a Second Lieutenant with the Bengal Artillery on 12 December 1851. He became ADC to his father in 1852, transferred to the Bengal Horse Artillery in 1854 and was promoted to lieutenant on 31 May 1857.